By the end of Year 4, our Wizards of Writing will engage the reader through a selection of relevant content and choice of appropriate features by drawing from models of similar writing, wider reading and research. They will be able to discuss their written work and use appropriate terminology to evaluate and edit their writing according to the purpose by considering the effectiveness of word choice, grammar and punctuation. Our children will enhance the effectiveness of writing through a varied and rich vocabulary, varied grammar and sentence structures. To help structure their writing and aid cohesion, our Wizards of Writing will use paragraphs to organize information around a theme; use fronted adverbials to begin their sentences in different ways and connect paragraphs and use appropriate choice of pronouns or nouns across sentences to avoid repetition. In Non-Fiction texts, our children will use simple organizational devices including headings and sub-headings to aid presentation. Children will extend the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions (when, if, because, although). To add detail, they will use nouns and noun phrases expanded by the addition of modifying adjectives, nouns and preposition phrases. Children will begin to use some determiners to give more detail about nouns. Our Writers will use a range of punctuation accurately most of the time including: full stops and capital letters; exclamation marks; question marks; commas to separate items in lists; apostrophes for contracted forms and for possession with singular nouns; commas after fronted adverbials and inverted commas for dialogue. Children will show some awareness of using punctuation to indicate direct speech including a comma after the reporting clause, end punctuation within commas and use of new line for new speaker. They will also begin to show some accurate use of possessive apostrophes for plural nouns. Within their writing, a variety of verb forms will be used correctly and consistently including the past and present tense, progressive and present perfect. Children will use standard English forms for verb inflections instead of local forms. Children will be able to spell the full range of spelling rules and patterns as listed for Year 3/4 to allow them to spell the statutory Year 3/4 words mostly accurately with only a few errors in more ambition vocabulary choices. Our Writers will be able to use dictionaries effectively by looking for the first 2 or 3 letters of a word. They will join their handwriting throughout independent writing using diagonal and horizontal strokes with greater fluency.